Hridaynath Mangeshkar is the only son of Deenanath Mangeshkar, a Brahmin, while his mother belonged to the Gomantak Maratha Samaj. He is a brother to four sisters, Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle, Meena Khadikar and Usha Mangeshkar, and youngest among them. He is married to Bharati Malvankar Mangeshkar, daughter of Marathi comedian Damuanna Malvankar. They have two sons Aadinath and Vaijnath, and a daughter Radha. In 2009, Radha launched her debut album Naav Maaza Shaami. She has been trained by Hridaynath and accompanies him in various stage shows.
He has been very selective with his work. He has composed songs in Marathi and Hindi. His songs often have complex meters and require singers of great range and depth for enjoyable renditions. His composition of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar's poem Saagara Pran Talamalala is a case in point. His 1982 album Dnyaneshwar Mauli featuring compositions from Jñāneśvar, one of the most famous poet in Marathi literature, set the standard for modern devotional music in Marathi.